Note: Examples of student project reports will be made available to course instructors upon request ( send email ).
In this project we measure and compare the statistics of round-trip times (RTTs) to different destinations. In addition, we discover hop-by-hop routes to various destinations.
Visit the Wikipedia page to learn about the Ping (networking utility) and Tracert.
Another useful page is What is Ping?.
For your convenience, the usage information for both programs is printed here.
Select at least 5 different hosts around the US and on different continents.
An example host in Asia is
www.ust.hk for the
Web server at Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.
Note: If the traced route looks suspiciously short (only few hops), it may be that your chosen website uses a content delivery network, such as akamai.com, in which case the endpoint server will be located within the US. To avoid such scenario and reach a truly intercontinental destination, you should avoid commercial websites and select a governmental or educational website.
Send the ping requests for at least 100 times (preferably 1,000 times).
Use the option
-n to specify the number of echo requests to send.
[Note: Some hosts refuse to answer the ping requests for security reasons, so you might not be able to ping them and will get a “Request time out” message.]
Try with different size request packets. Use the option
-l to set the send buffer size.
Immediately after (or before) running
for the same destination host.
Record all measurement results.
For each destination, repeat the
measurement at least 10 times. Try on different days and during different
times of the day, when you suspect that the network will be lightly used versus
heavily used. Note that for worldwide locations you need to decide whether
the network is heavily used in your region, versus in the destination host region,
At the same time use Wireshark to capture all the ICMP packets sent from your host and received from the pinged host.
tracert measurements, determine if there is a link for
which the delay is significantly longer than for others.
On the basis of the router names, can you guess the geographic location
(country) of the two routers at the endpoints of this link?
Draw a histogram of
round-trip-times (RTTs). Your histogram should be shown so that RTT values
are along the horizontal axis and the frequency of measurement is along
the vertical axis.
The scale of the horizontal axis should be from the smallest
RTT value to the greatest RTT value. Indicate the time units (such as milliseconds)
on the horizontal axis.
The scale of the vertical axis should be from zero to the
greatest frequency value.
Here “frequency” means how many times you observed a certain RTT value. Consider this example reported by
> Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: > Minimum = 21ms, Maximum = 24ms, Average = 22msThen your horizontal axis should show four values for RTTs:
21, 22, 23, and 24 msThe vertical axis should show how many times the RTT of 21 ms was observed, how many times 22 ms was observed, etc.
Recall that the IP protocol may deliver packets from the same session along different routes. Analyze the routes observed for the same destination, but during different observation instances. Determine if different routes were recorded during different experiments.
During the analysis of the ping results, compare also the ICMP packets captured by Wireshark.
As a minimum, include the following information in your report:
tracertlinks, if any, with a significantly longer delay.
You may find useful a shareware version of a Windows program called pingplotter for graphing the Ping and Traceroute results.
The format for the cover page should be the same as for project 1.
To receive credit, it is not enough just to attach
the raw Wireshark data to your report.
Instead, you must analyze and discuss the data,
and include diagrams and charts.
It is critical that your
report summarizes the captured data in diagrams, and the narrative
provides discussion and explanation of the
The items listed above form just a minimum requirement for the report and can be satisfied to a different degree. Only the students who have performed greatest number of experiments and provided most extensive analysis and discussion of their results shall receive the top score (100%). The reports that have satisfied all the required items, but only to a bare minimum, shall receive 60% out of 100% of the maximum score.
Submission deadline given on the course syllabus page.
Wireshark Q&A - measuring round trip time
Streaming media, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
What protocol does youtube use to stream videos... RTSP or HTTP?
YouTube API Blog - News and Notes for Developers, Tuesday, June 29, 2010
Flash and the HTML5 <video> tag
Apple - iTunes - Podcasts - FAQs: For Podcast Fans
C:\Users\ivan>tracert Usage: tracert [-d] [-h maximum_hops] [-j host-list] [-w timeout] [-R] [-S srcaddr] [-4] [-6] target_name Options: -d Do not resolve addresses to hostnames. -h maximum_hops Maximum number of hops to search for target. -j host-list Loose source route along host-list (IPv4-only). -w timeout Wait timeout milliseconds for each reply. -R Trace round-trip path (IPv6-only). -S srcaddr Source address to use (IPv6-only). -4 Force using IPv4. -6 Force using IPv6.
C:\Users\ivan>ping Usage: ping [-t] [-a] [-n count] [-l size] [-f] [-i TTL] [-v TOS] [-r count] [-s count] [[-j host-list] | [-k host-list]] [-w timeout] [-R] [-S srcaddr] [-4] [-6] target_name Options: -t Ping the specified host until stopped. To see statistics and continue - type Control-Break; To stop - type Control-C. -a Resolve addresses to hostnames. -n count Number of echo requests to send. -l size Send buffer size. -f Set Don't Fragment flag in packet (IPv4-only). -i TTL Time To Live. -v TOS Type Of Service (IPv4-only. This setting has been deprecated and has no effect on the type of service field in the IP Head er). -r count Record route for count hops (IPv4-only). -s count Timestamp for count hops (IPv4-only). -j host-list Loose source route along host-list (IPv4-only). -k host-list Strict source route along host-list (IPv4-only). -w timeout Timeout in milliseconds to wait for each reply. -R Use routing header to test reverse route also (IPv6-only). -S srcaddr Source address to use. -4 Force using IPv4. -6 Force using IPv6.
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Last Modified: Wed Nov 14 18:24:37 EDT 2012 Maintained by: Ivan Marsic