Computer Networking:   Related Online Links


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  1. Link Collections
    Professional Organizations   |   Internet Organizations
  2. Basics
  3. Network Protocols
    OSI Model   |   ...
  4. Internet Protocol (IP)
    Naming and Addressing   |   Other
  5. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
  6. Routing
    Routing Table or Routing Information Base (RIB)   |   Interdomain Routing   |   Multicast Routing   |   ...
  7. Link Technologies
    Wi-Fi Wireless Networks (IEEE 802.11)   |   Zigbee Wireless Networks (IEEE 802.15.4)   |   WiMAX Wireless Networks (IEEE 802.16)   |   Bluetooth Wireless Networks   |   Ethernet Networks (IEEE 802.3)
  8. Quality of Service
    Active Queue Management   |   Integrated Services (IntServ) and RSVP   |   Differentiated Services (DiffServ)
  9. Multimedia and Real-time Applications
    VoIP / Internet Telephony   |   Internet Video   |   Unified Communications
  10. Network Measurement
    Traffic and Network Analysis Resources   |   ...
  11. Security
  12. Miscellaneous
    Network Time Synchronization   |   GPS   |   History
  13. Recent Developments
  14. Network Simulation Tools

0.   Link Collections

Internet Technical Resources, online links maintained by Henning Schulzrinne:

Network bibliography, by Henning Schulzrinne:
Extensive searchable index of networking papers and books

Communication Systems and Technology:
A List of Web Tutorials and References, by R. Victor Jones

Real-Time Traffic in Internet: bibliography
Paper collection, by Tiziana Ferrari, last modified Jan 13, 1999

Professional Organizations

(has links to online versions of some past SIGCOMM proceedings)


IEEE Communication Society:

IEEE Computer Society:

Internet Organizations

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF):
      o   Internet RFCs:
      o   Internet Drafts:

Internet Research Task Force (IRTF):
      o   Reliable Multicast Research Group:

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN):
Also see Domain name, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1.   Basics

Data Networking Basics:
by Steven Taylor and Larry Hettick; Posted July 16, 2004

Networking Basics:
By L. Madhavan

3Com Corp White papers:

2.   Network Protocols

OSI Model

OSI Model - from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

[PDF]   The OSI Model: Understanding the Seven Layers of Computer Networks:
A white paper, by Global Knowledge

When Is a “Little in the Middle” OK? The Internet’s End-to-End Principle Faces More Debate:
by Gregory Goth — The recent attempt by VeriSign to launch their SiteFinder search engine has renewed interest in the ongoing debate about Internet governance.

Why it’s time to let the OSI model die:
By Steve Taylor and Jim Metzler, Network World, 09/23/2008

Cisco Administration 101: Understand the OSI model to become a better Cisco troubleshooter
Blog post on TechRepublic/NetworkAdministrator, by David Davis, June 20th, 2008.

3.   Internet Protocol (IP)

Internet Protocol Design and Implementation,  by Nate Lawson, 2005-2008.
…documents the design and implementation of TCP/IP with some important highlights from news, mailing lists, and papers.

Naming and Addressing

[PDF]   3Com Corp., “White paper: Understanding IP addressing: everything you ever wanted to know”
Also check TechRepublic

TechRepublic: IP Subnetting Made Easy:
George Ou explains IP subnetting using his own graphical approach. It’s a great primer for students and a nice refresher for others.

CIDR: What’s A Netmask?

IETF Dynamic Host Configuration (dhc) working group homepage:
The dhc working group (DHC WG) has developed DHCP for automated allocation, configuration and management of IP addresses and TCP/IP protocol stack parameters.

The Address Supporting Organization home page:

IP Address Space Allocated to ARIN (American Registry for Internet Numbers):
Also see:

Solving the Mysteries of Subnetting:
A white paper, by Global Knowledge


How Does Ping Really Work?:
A white paper, by Global Knowledge

4.   Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

[PDF, book]   TCP/IP Tutorial and Technical Overview:
IBM Redbook, by A.Rodriguez, J. Gatrell, J. Karas, R.Peschke.   Publish Date: 19 December 2006.   ISBN: 0738494682   Number of pages: 998., “TCP Regression Tests”:
The tests show the behavior of SSF TCP Tahoe and Reno variants for different networks, TCP parameter settings, and loss conditions.<

A Brief History of TCP:
By Electronics Research Group, Department of Engineering, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.

Top 10 Reasons Why TCP Is Reliable:
A white paper, by Global Knowledge

5.   Routing

How the IP router works:
Also check TechRepublic   and   ZDNet

Operation of a Router:

[PDF]   Router Essentials:
A white paper, by Global Knowledge; March 2008 (8 pages)

[PDF]   IP router architectures: An overview
by James Aweya, Nortel Networks, Ottawa, Canada, K1Y 4H7

[PDF]   Counting to Infinity:
Description of the count-to-infinity problem of distance-vector routing.
by Janne Lindqvist,   Helsinki University of Technology

Routing Table or Routing Information Base (RIB)

Routing Table
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Microsoft, Inc.,   IP Routing Table

Understanding routing tables,”  By Deb Shinder | May 23, 2001.

IP forwarding,”
By Shun Yan Cheung, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Emory University.

Interdomain Routing

Interdomain routing links  by Timothy G. Griffin, Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge
The site contains a ealth of links related to interdomain routing.  (Page last updated on 12-December-2004)

Understanding OSPF External Route Path Selection,  by Brian McGahan, CCIE #8593
A blog pos that discusses OSPF external route selection and highlights a mystery behind E1 & E2 metrics.

Multicast Routing

Multicast - What Is It?:
A white paper, by Global Knowledge

6.   Link Technologies

[PDF]   RS-232: A Key To Understanding Data Communications:
A white paper, by Global Knowledge; July 2008 (13 pages)

Wi-Fi Wireless Networks (IEEE 802.11)

You Believe You Understand What You Think I Said... The Truth About 802.11 Signal And Noise Metrics:
A Discussion Clarifying Often-Misused 802.11 WLAN Terminologies,   By Joshua Bardwell
See also:   RSSI in Madwifi = == What is RSSI? == RSSI is an acronym for ...

Micorsoft, Inc.,   How 802.11 Wireless Works   [Updated: March 28, 2003]

Eleven Myths about 802.11 Wi-Fi Networks:
A white paper, by Global Knowledge

Zigbee Wireless Networks (IEEE 802.15.4)

ZigBee Alliance:
      also see IEEE 802.15.4 WPAN-LR Task Group:

ZigBee - from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

WiMAX Wireless Networks (IEEE 802.16)

The IEEE 802.16 Working Group on Broadband Wireless Access Standards:
developing the IEEE 802.16 WirelessMAN Standard for Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks...

IEEE 802.16 Task Group m (TGm):
IEEE’s 802.16m A/K/A next-generation WiMAX — 802.16 Task Group m (TGm) is chartered to develop an amendment to IEEE Standard 802.16 under the PAR P802.16m and the relevant Five Criteria Statement statement. The PAR addresses “Air Interface for Fixed and Mobile Broadband Wireless Access Systems - Advanced Air Interface.”

Bluetooth Wireless Networks

Bluetooth Device Networking:
      also here:

Ethernet Networks (IEEE 802.3)

IEEE 802.3 Ethernet:

IEEE-SA Get IEEE 802.3 LAN/MAN CSMA/CD Access Method:

IEEE 802.3 - from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
      also here:

9 Common Spanning Tree Mistakes,”  By Scott Hogg | 01/02/2013
Frequent spanning tree protocol misconfigurations cause network problems.

Spanning Tree Protocol Problems and Related Design Considerations

Cisco, Inc.   Configuring STP
This book chapter describes how to configure the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) on port-based VLANs on the Cisco Catalyst 2960 and 2960-S switches.

Approaches to enforce real-time behavior in Ethernet:
by P. Pedreiras, L. Almeida , LSE-IEETA / DET, Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal

7.   Quality of Service

Cisco’s Internetworking Technology Handbook - Quality of Service:

Quality of service - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

Network Quality of Service:
A list of Web links maintained by Henning Schulzrinne

QoS: What Is It? Why Do We Need It?:
A white paper, by Global Knowledge

Implementing QoS (tutorial):

[PDF]   Design, Implementation and Evaluation of a QoS-Aware Transport Protocol:
a research paper by Guillaume Jourjon, Emmanuel Lochin, Patrick Senac - University of New South Wales

[PDF, slides]   IP Quality of Service: Theory and best practices:

Improving Audio/Video Quality of Service Over WLANs:

Cisco Resource Manager Essentials:

Cisco QoS Policy Manager:

Cisco ACL Manager:

Cisco Service Management Solution:

Active Queue Management

Sally Floyd: References on RED (Random Early Detection) Queue Management

S. Floyd, “TCP and Explicit Congestion Notification,” ACM Computer Communication Review, Vol. 24 No. 5, pp. 10-23, October 1994.

RFC 3168:  The Addition of Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) to IP

Integrated Services (IntServ) and RSVP

RSVP Protocol Overview:
A brief description of the RSVP protocol; Last modified: 5 March 1999 , by Steven Berson

RFC 2205: Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) - Version 1 Functional Specification:

Differentiated Services (DiffServ)

DiffServ - The Scalable End-to-End QoS Model:
Cisco Inc., white paper on both the IntServ and DiffServ models of QoS. Last Updated: August 2005
NOTE: in case the above link doesn’t work, try here

8.   Multimedia and Real-time Applications

VoIP / Internet Telephony

IP Telephony from A to Z: The Complete IP Telephony eBook, by ShoreTel:
    Also see:

Planning and Migration Strategies for IP Telephony:
by Network World Editors, Special Report on VoIP, October 2005 (8 pages)

IP Telephony Executive Guide 2007, by ShoreTel:

[PDF]   Is It the Network? Solving VoIP Problems on a Wireless LAN:
A white paper, by Global Knowledge; January 2007 (11 pages)

Four obstacles to implementing VoIP:
by Deb Shinder, May 11, 2007 — While VoIP’s popularity continues to grow, it still has some obstacles to overcome before it becomes ubiquitous in corporate environments. Deb Shinder lists the four greatest obstacles and discusses how they undermine one of VoIP’s biggest advantages—the cost savings.

Building Reliable IP Telephony Systems:
By Ed Basart, Chief Technology Officer ShoreTel, October 2006
(How Architecture and Design Differentiate ShoreTel from the Competition...)

Voice Architectures and Deployment Models:
A white paper, by Global Knowledge

Understanding Voice over IP Signaling Protocols in Cisco Telephony Implementations:
A white paper, by Global Knowledge

Is Your Network Ready for IP Telephony?
Network Readiness For VoIP: Straight facts about IP telephony planning and deployment, by ShoreTel, March 2005 (10 pages)

VoIP: How to Plan for the Bandwidth and Calculate the Cost Savings:
A white paper, by Global Knowledge

Webcast:   Unleashing the Value of VoIP
NOTE: This presentation will be available to audience members until September 26, 2009 at 10:00 AM Pacific Daylight Time.

[PDF]   A Measurement-Based Study of the Skype Peer-to-Peer VoIP Performance:
a research paper by Haiyong Xie and Yang Richard Yang, Yale University, February 2007

[PDF]   An Experimental Study of the Skype Peer-to-Peer VoIP System:
a research paper by Saikat Guha (Cornell University), and Neil Daswani, Ravi Jain (Google), January 2008 (6 pages)

Internet Video

[PDF]   Skype Video Responsiveness to Bandwidth Variations:
a research paper by Luca De Cicco, Saverio Mascolo, and Vittorio Palmisano - Politecnico di Bari, Bari, Italy
Conference paper presented at ACM NOSSDAV 2008, Braunschweig, Germany

[PDF]   High-Bandwidth Video Conferencing Systems: When Is the Quality Worth the Cost?
a research paper by Emilee Rader, Erik Hofer, and Tom Finholt - University of Michigan, January 2006 (4 pages)

[PDF]   Developing a Video Over IP Internet Broadcasting Network:
Case Study, by C-Path1, June 2008 (2 pages)
... after monitoring the IP video circuit between Moscow and New York, it can be seen that there are over 1,000 lost packets per hour, over 10,000 out of order packets per hour, and jitter of greater than 25 milliseconds ...

[PDF]   Terrestrial Video Backhaul Over IP:
Case Study, by C-Path1, May 2008 (3 pages)

Unified Communications

Unified Communications Pocket Guide, by ShoreTel:

Cisco Unified Communications: Unifying Communications Infrastructure:
A white paper, by Global Knowledge

Top Myths of Unified Communications, by Cisco, Inc:

Webcast:   Unified Communications Beyond IP Telephony
NOTE:This presentation will be available to audience members until July 08, 2009 at 10:00 AM Pacific Daylight Time.

10 Key Architecture Considerations for Unified Communications, by Adomo:

Unified Communications: What, Why and How? - What Value Can Unified Communications Bring to Your Enterprise?
A white paper by Nemertes Research, 2007

Unified Communications Real-Time Communications Concepts and Business Applications:
By Irwin Lazar, Principal Research Analyst and Program Director, Collaboration and Convergence, Nemertes Research, 2007

The Business Value of Unified Communications:
By Jim Meltzer, IT Business Report, August 2007

Getting the Foundation Right - Unified Communications, by ShoreTel:

9.   Network Measurement

Traffic and Network Analysis Resources

Internet traffic archive:

Advanced networks surveyor project:
The project uses GPS-based clocks to do active measurements of Internet performance.

RIPE’s test traffic project uses GPS-based clocks

IETF draft A One-way Delay Metric for IPPM:

IET’s Internet Protocol Performance Metrics (IPPM):

RTT Distribution, by Matthieu Latapy:
Surprisingly, the plot exhibits several clear peaks...
Similar observation was made earlier by Alex Ma of, here:

Cisco Inc., Internetwork Performance Monitor:

10.   Security

Cisco Systems Inc., Why You Need a Firewall:
The next chapter describes the concepts and terminology used to describe today’s common firewall architectures, such as security perimeters, packet filters, and proxy services.

Cookie Central homepage:
By David Whalen: “Cookies have brought personalization, commerce, and convenience to the internet, legitimizing it as a place for business, not just for science or personal home pages...”

Wireless Wi-Fi Security

The Unofficial 802.11 Security Web Page:
By Bernard Aboba, this page tries to gather relevant papers and standards in a single place...

11.   Miscellaneous

Network Time Synchronization

Time Synchronization with NTP:


GPS Tutorial:


Columbia University Computing History:
A Chronology of Computing at Columbia University, by Frank da Cruz

12.   Recent Developments

Next generation networks,”  a collection of articles on ZDNet
The rising tides of big data, video, and cloud computing are driving tremendous demand for faster and more efficient networks. ZDNet authors delve into how things like software-defined networks (SDN) and new wireless technologies are enabling business transformation.

Next-generation networks: An overview,”  By Charles McLellan | June 3, 2013
The new enterprise IT landscape of cloud services, mobility and BYOD, social media usage and big data analytics creates very different types of network traffic to the traditional mix of in-house client-server enterprise workloads. How will networks evolve to keep pace?

Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is ‘stupidity’ says GNU guru Richard Stallman:
GNU creator Richard Stallman is not on board with cloud computing, to say the least. He thinks it’s a trap for the unwary and worse than using proprietary software. What do you think of his reasoning? by Selena Frye

Cloud computing as a term: More meaningless by the minute:
Posted by Larry Dignan, September 9, 2008
The term cloud computing may have outrun its usefulness - it’s beginning to conjure up images of “Web 2.0” and “paradigm shift.”

Cloud computing: End of the corporate WAN?
By Frank Dzubeck, Network World, 10/01/2008

Moving Towards Federated Cloud Computing:
Blog posted by Michael Vizard on October 22, 2008

13.   Network Simulation Tools

NS network simulator and NAM network animator


MIT OpenCourseWare - 6.829 Computer Networks (Fall 2002):

&   Back to Computer Networks textbook page
H   Back to Ivan Marsic’s home page

This page last updated: Sun Oct 19 13:09:46 EDT 2008